People living with psychotic illness 2010

Appendix 7. Physical health profile

Page last updated: November 2011

In the tables below, metabolic syndrome has been defined using the International Diabetes Federation metabolic syndrome consensus definition of at risk abdominal obesity based on waist circumference and at least two other at risk measures.13

The definitions of "at risk" for the individual components of metabolic syndrome are:

  • waist circumference greater than or equal to 94 cm for males, greater than or equal to 80cm for females;
  • fasting high density lipoproteins less than 1.03mmol/L for males, less than 1.29mmol/L for females;
  • fasting triglycerides greater than or equal to 1.7mmol/L;
  • fasting plasma glucose greater than or equal to 5.6mmol/L;
  • systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 130 mmHg; and
  • diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 85 mmHg.
Absolute five-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham risk equation15, 16. In line with National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance guidelines16 for the assessment of absolute cardiovascular disease, high risk was assumed automatically for those with: pre-existing cardiovascular disease; diabetes and aged over 60 years; systolic blood pressure of 180 mmHg or more; diastolic blood pressure of 110 mmHg or more; or total serum cholesterol higher than 7.5 mmol/L. Other conditions covered in the guidelines could not be included as survey data were not available for them.

The World Health Organisation body mass index reference range, widely used in Australia, has been used to classify overweight and obesity as follows:
  • underweight: body mass index less than 18.5;
  • normal: body mass index between 18.5 and 24.99;
  • overweight: body mass index between 25.00 and 29.99; and
  • obese: body mass index greater than or equal to 30.00.17
Data on level of physical activity were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire18 and have been classified according to Australian Bureau of Statistics categories used in the 2007 National Mental Health Survey.19

Appendix Table 7-1. Self-reported physical ill health, as told by doctor in lifetime

Males
Proportion (%)
Females
Proportion (%)
Age 18-34 years
Proportion (%)
Age 35-64 years
Proportion (%)
Persons
Proportion (%)
Chronic back, neck or other pain
28.7
36.3
21.7
39.2
31.8
Asthma
26.9
34.8
29.8
30.3
30.1
High cholesterol
27.1
32.5
19.4
36.6
29.3
Heart or ciculatory condition
26.0
28.0
17.6
33.7
26.8
Allergies
21.2
33.1
22.9
28.2
26.0
Frequent/severe headaches/migraines
21.6
30.9
21.5
28.2
20.8
Arthritis
16.7
26.8
10.7
28.2
20.8
Diabetes
19.4
22.1
11.5
27.1
20.5
Respiratory problems
16.8
19.6
12.9
21.7
18.0
Anaemia
4.2
27.0
9.4
16.3
13.4
Hepatitis
12.7
8.9
8.9
12.8
11.2
Eating disorder
2.9
15.6
8.5
7.6
8.0
Epilepsy
7.7
6.8
6.3
8.1
7.3
Cancer
2.9
7.9
1.4
7.5
4.9
Liver disease other than hepatitis
4.4
4.6
2.3
6.1
4.5
Kidney disease
2.6
3.9
2.1
3.9
3.1
Stroke
2.0
2.3
0.1
3.6
2.1
Parkinsons's disease
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.6
0.3
Gynaecological problems (women only)
-
27.1
26.1
27.7
27.1
Other
7.3
12.1
6.5
11.2
9.2
Top of page

Appendix Table 7-2. Metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors assessed at time of interview

Age of onset (years)Males
Proportion (%)
Females
Proportion (%)
Age 18-34 years
Proportion (%)
Age 35-64 years
Proportion (%)
Persons
Proportion (%)
Met criteria for metabolic syndrome*
49.9
50.0
40.9
56.4
49.9
Met at risk criteria for individual cardiometabolic measures:
Abdominal obesity
76.1
91.2
74.5
87.7
82.1
High density lipoproteins
48.4
51.8
50.3
49.3
49.7
Blood pressure
51.4
44.8
40.7
54.7
48.8
Triglycerides
51.3
43.2
40.5
53.5
48.0
Plasma glucose
30.6
25.6
20.4
34.6
28.6

* International Diabetes Federation metabolic syndrome consensus criteria13 applied to those with no missing data.
† Fasting blood tests.

Appendix Table 7-3. Absolute 5-year cardiovascular disease risk*

Males
Proportion (%)
Females
Proportion (%)
Age 18-34 years
Proportion (%)
Age 35-64 years
Proportion (%)
Persons
Proportion (%)
Low risk
66.6
72.1
87.2
56.3
68.8
Medium risk
9.4
3.8
0.0
12.0
7.2
High risk
24.0
24.2
12.8
31.7
24.0

*Framingham risk equation15-16 applied to those with no missing data

Appendix Table 7-4. Body Mass Index17

Males
Proportion (%)
Females
Proportion (%)
Age 18-34 years
Proportion (%)
Age 35-64 years
Proportion (%)
Persons
Proportion (%)
Underweight
1.2
1.8
2.8
0.4
1.4
Normal
23.0
21.5
28.1
18.3
22.4
Overweight
32.4
22.2
28.7
27.9
28.3
Obese
41.6
50.3
37.8
50.5
45.1
Not known
1.8
4.2
2.6
2.9
2.8

Appendix Table 7-5. Level of physical activity* in past 7 days

Males
Proportion (%)
Females
Proportion (%)
Age 18-34 years
Proportion (%)
Age 35-64 years
Proportion (%)
Persons
Proportion (%)
Sedentary
32.3
35.2
28.6
37.1
33.5
Low
63.3
62.3
66.1
60.6
62.9
Moderate
3.7
1.9
4.4
1.9
3.0
High
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.3
Not known
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.1
0.3

* Classified using categories from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing19Top of page

Appendix Table 7-6. Nutrition in past 4 weeks

Males
Proportion (%)
Females
Proportion (%)
Age 18-34 years
Proportion (%)
Age 35-64 years
Proportion (%)
Persons
Proportion (%)
Breakfast: Does not have breakfast
34.0
32.5
34.2
32.9
33.4
Fruit: Does not eat fruit
26.4
17.5
24.2
21.8
22.8
Fruit: One serve or less per day
48.3
48.2
49.8
47.1
48.3
Vegetables: Does not eat vegetables
7.9
5.8
7.9
6.5
7.1
Vegetables: One serve or less per day
44.2
37.7
43.5
40.1
41.5
Ran out of food (past year)
28.1
29.0
30.0
27.3
28.4

Appendix Table 7-7. Physical health assessment in past year

Males
Proportion (%)
Females
Proportion (%)
Age 18-34 years
Proportion (%)
Age 35-64 years
Proportion (%)
Persons
Proportion (%)
In past year: blood pressure measurement
84.8
86.7
83.2
87.4
85.6
In past year: waist or weight measurement
77.3
76.2
73.9
79.0
76.8
In past year: physical examination
66.1
69.0
62.0
71.2
67.3
In past year: blood test
63.7
62.7
57.4
67.6
63.3
In past year: dental examination
44.5
50.7
47.1
47.0
47.0
In past year: x-ray or scan
40.0
46.6
41.3
43.7
42.7
In past year: eye test
33.4
38.6
29.8
39.7
35.5
In past year: hearing test
11.1
10.7
7.9
13.2
11.0
In past two years: bowel examination
11.9
16.1
7.2
18.3
13.6
In past two years: cervical smear (women only)
-
55.0
52.6
56.4
55.0
In past two years: mammogram (women only)
-
23.8
8.6
32.6
23.8
In past two years: prostate cancer screen (men only)
13.8
-
3.8
22.5
13.8

Appendix Table 7-8. Different types of physical health assessments in past year

Males
Proportion (%)
Females
Proportion (%)
Age 18-34 years
Proportion (%)
Age 35-64 years
Proportion (%)
Persons
Proportion (%)
Mean
4
4
4
4
4
Median
4
5
4
5
4