Evaluation Toolkit for Breastfeeding Programs and Projects

June 2012

Appendix B - A logic based evaluation framework

Page last updated: 04 November 2013

(These instructions can be deleted once you have finalised your document.)
This template provides a structure for designing an evaluation based on program logic. Complete the sections below and then use these to fill in the table on the next page. It’s a good idea to involve a number of people in this exercise (perhaps clinicians, program managers and other staff, and consumers if felt appropriate). While a program logic is sometimes completed at the beginning of a program you can do this exercise at any time by articulating the actual early steps and their intended consequences. The text below provides an example that illustrates the kinds of things to think about but the nature of your service may be quite different and your plan could be simpler or more detailed than this example.

1. Program being evaluated

Type your answer here
e.g. local mother and baby clinic breastfeeding support program

2. Target population/priority subpopulation(s)

Type your answer here
e.g. mothers and babies (up to six months) from Southside catchment, area with a particular focus on meeting the needs of teenage parents and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families.

3. Length of program (ongoing, time limited)

Type your answer here
e.g. ongoing since 2009.

4. Evaluators (internal, external, team or individual)

Type your answer here
e.g. evaluation being undertaken internally by local clinic team, with support from Health Department/Medicare Local and nearby university.

5. Resources required (financial, time, staff, etc.)

Type your answer here
e.g. 4 months, 0.1 manager, 0.3 staff, $5,000 for statistical advice on survey sample size and data analysis.

6. The specific identified need(s) which the program is aiming to address:

Type your answer here
e.g. local mothers have high breastfeeding initiation rates but often lack the knowledge and family/community support needed to overcome breastfeeding challenges and continue breastfeeding past the first month or so. The clinic aims to increase the breastfeeding knowledge of mothers and their families/support people, and to provide additional individual and small-group support and clinical advice where needed.

7. The specific activities which have or will be implemented to address identified need(s):

Type your answer here
e.g. antenatal breastfeeding education classes, and postnatal breastfeeding support through a combination of home visits, phone support, drop in centre and individual appointments for mothers requiring more specialised clinical support.

8. If all those activities are implemented well, what will you expect to see in the short-term? (you will need to put a timeframe on this, for instance 6 months from implementation)

Write your agreed short-term outcomes here – there may be several. These should be written as full-sentences, e.g.: More women in our catchment area will learn about breastfeeding and know about our services before they give birth.

9. If all those outputs occur, what will you expect to see in the medium-term? (you will need to put a timeframe on this, for instance 1 year from implementation)

Write your agreed medium-term outcomes here – there may be several. These should be written as full-sentences, e.g.: The number of women who contact our breastfeeding clinic and use our services will increase.

10. If all those medium-outcomes occur, what will you expect to see in the long-term? (you will need to put a timeframe on this, for instance 2 years from implementation)

Write your agreed medium-term outcomes here – there may be several. These should be written as full-sentences, e.g.: Women who receive support from our breastfeeding clinic are able to breastfeed for longer than they would have otherwise.

11. Now, write all those statements from questions 6-10 into the table below in the left-hand column. Each logic statement should have one row in the table. We have provided some text as examples in the table, but these are just examples. You can add as many rows as you need to put in all of your logic statements.

12. Once you have your activity and outcome statements in the table, you need to identify what questions will help you find out whether that outcome has been achieved. What questions might you need to ask? Write them in the second column, next to each outcome statement.

13. When your questions have all been agreed, you need to identify what indicators will help you answer the questions. These might include new mothers’ levels of knowledge about a service, satisfaction levels, or clinical rates of particular breastfeeding issues. Write these down next to each evaluation question. There may be more than one indicator for some questions.

14. Now, where will you find the data? Will it be in the clinical records or other documentation, or do you need to create a new way to collect the information? Do you need to talk to people – staff or clients – to find out about their experiences? Is some of the data you need already collected through local services, your local, state or territory government or available through national or state/territory level surveys or other published or unpublished research? Write your data sources in that column next to each indicator.

15. Finally, when will you be looking for the data? Is it already available (for instance, in your own clinical records) or do you have to wait for it (for instance, the release of a national survey by a government agency)? If it’s a survey or a series of interviews or focus groups, when will you conduct these?

16. After all of this, you should have a completed table which identifies the following:

  • what you expect to happen if your program is working as you intend
  • what questions you can ask to find out if your program is achieving its outcomes
  • what indicators will provide answers to those questions
  • where you will find the data you need
  • when you will be collecting it.
17. Once your framework is completed, it can be useful to share it with others to get their perspective. Sometimes explaining things to others can help make it clearer to your team, and also allow others to ask questions you may not have thought of.

18. Now you have a plan to evaluate your program. Go for it!


Program logicEvaluation questionsIndicatorsData sourcesTiming
Activity 1

antenatal breastfeeding education classes

How well were these activities undertaken? What worked? What barriers were experienced? How were these overcome?Participant’s satisfaction with availability, teacher, information provided, format, venue

Participants awareness of available breastfeeding support pathways.

Survey of participants

Optional on-line ‘quiz’ following attendance at class.

Activity 2

postnatal breastfeeding support

Identify staff views of areas for improvementBrainstorming session with key staff
Short-term outcome 1

More women in our catchment area will learn about breastfeeding and know about our services before they give birth.

Were the intended short-term outcomes achieved? If not, why not?Proportion of women birthing in local hospital who attended breastfeeding classes

Number of hits on clinic webpage

Number of sites posters/flyers displayed

Hospital records

Web administrator

Short-term outcome 2What was evident as a result of the activities which were undertaken?
Medium-term outcome 1

Increased satisfaction with the service

Were the intended medium-term outcomes reached? If not, why not?Satisfaction with specific aspects of the service and encounters with staffSurvey of service usersSurvey provided while waiting for immunisation visits.
Medium-term outcome 2

The number of women who contact our breastfeeding clinic and use our services will increase.

Numbers of women using each aspect of the service

Waiting times

Appointments book

Phone records

Clinical records

In-house audit conducted twice a year
Long-term outcome 1What evidence is available that the long-term outcomes will or can be reached? What has been learned about achieving these outcomes? What could be improved?What evidence will demonstrate success? Enter these here. E.g. satisfaction of clients and/or staff, clinical indicators, increased efficiencies – be as specific as possibleWhere will you find your data? Will it be in the clinical records? Do you need to survey clients or staff? Is it documented or do you need to do a survey about people’s experiences? How will you collect that data if it isn’t already available? When will you be collecting this data? When will it be available?
Long-term outcome 2

Women who receive support from our breastfeeding clinic are able to breastfeed for longer than they would have otherwise.

increase proportion breastfed to six months of age and exclusively breastfed to two and four months of age

reduce the gap between breastfeeding rates in our area and state/national level breastfeeding rates

records from clinical support encounters

breastfeeding survey questions at routine immunisation visits

phone survey of sample of service users

As per immunisation schedule

1 + 3 months after last encounter with breastfeeding service