The health and psychological consequences of cannabis use - chapter 7

THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN RESCINDED: A list of references used in Chapter 7.

Page last updated: 1994

Please note the information in this publication may no longer be current but is retained on our website for historical or research purposes.

<< Previous Chapter | Contents | Next Chapter>>


7. The psychological effects of chronic cannabis use


References


Bailey, S.L., Flewelling, J.V., and Rachal, J.V. (1992) Predicting continued use of marijuana among adolescents: the relative influence of drug-specific and social context factors. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 33, 51-66.

Baumrind, D. (1983) Specious causal attribution in the social sciences: the reformulated stepping stone hypothesis as exemplar. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1289-1298.
Baumrind, D. and Moselle, K.A. (1985) A developmental perspective on adolescent drug abuse. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 5, 41-67.

Brill, H. and Nahas, G.G. (1984) Cannabis intoxication and mental illness. In G.G. Nahas Marihuana in Science and Medicine. New York: Raven Press.

Brook, J.S., Cohen, P., Whiteman, M. and Gordon, A.S. (1992) Psychosocial risk factors in the transition from moderate to heavy use or abuse of drugs. In M. Glantz and R. Pickens (eds) Vulnerability to Drug Abuse. Washington: American Psychological Association.

Campbell, I. (1976) The amotivational syndrome and cannabis use with emphasis on the Canadian Scene. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 282, 33-36.

Carter, W. E, Coggins, W. and Doughty, P.L. (1980) Cannabis in Costa Rica: A study of chronic marihuana use. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues.

Cohen, S. (1982) Cannabis effects upon adolescent motivation. In National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning. Rockville, Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Top of page

Donnelly, N. and Hall, W. (1994) Patterns of Cannabis Use in Australia. Paper prepared for the National Task Force on Cannabis. National Drug Strategy Monograph Series No. 27. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Donovan, J.E. and Jessor, R. (1983) Problem drinking and the dimension of involvement with drugs: A Guttman Scalogram analysis of adolescent drug use. American Journal of Public Health, 73, 543-552.

Dornbush, R.L. (1974) The long-term effects of cannabis use. In L.L. Miller (ed) Marijuana: Effects on Behavior. New York: Academic Press.

DuPont, R. (1984) Getting Tough on Gateway Drugs. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press.

Edwards, G. (1976) Cannabis and the psychiatric position. In J.D.P. Graham (ed) Cannabis and Health. London: Academic Press.

Georgotas, A. and Zeidenberg, P. (1979) Observations on the effects of four weeks of heavy marijuana smoking on group interaction and individual behavior. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 20, 427-432.

Goode, E. (1974) Marijuana use and the progression to dangerous drugs. In L.L. Miller (Ed) Marijuana: Effects on Human Behavior. New York: Academic Press.

Halikas, J.A., Weller, R.A., Morse, C. and Shapiro, T. (1982) Incidence and characteristics of amotivational syndrome, including associated findings, among chronic marijuana users. In National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning. Rockville, Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Hawkins, J.D., Catalano, R.F. and Miller, J.Y. (1992) Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64-105.

Hendin, H., Haas, A.P., Singer, P., Eller, M. and Ulman, R. (1987) Living High: Daily Marijuana Use Among Adults. New York: Human Sciences Press.

Hollister, L.E. (1986) Health aspects of cannabis. Pharmacological Reviews, 38, 1-20.

Top of page

Jessor, R. and Jessor, S.L. (1977) Problem Behavior and Psychosocial Development: A Longitudinal Study of Youth. New York: Academic Press.

Jessor, R. and Jessor, S.L. (1978) Theory testing in longitudinal research on marihuana use. In D.B. Kandel (ed) Longitudinal Research on Drug Use: Empirical Findings and Methodological Issues. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Johnston, L.D., O'Maley, P.M. and Eveland, L.K. (1978) Drugs and delinquency: A search for causal connections. In D.B. Kandel (ed) Longitudinal Research on Drug Use: Empirical Findings and Methodological Issues. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Jones, R.T. (1984) Marijuana: Health and treatment issues. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7, 703-712.

Kandel, D.B. (1978) Convergences in prospective longtudinal surveys of drug use in normal populations. In D.B. Kandel (ed) Longitudinal Research on Drug Use: Empirical Findings and Methodological Issues. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Kandel, D.B. (1984) Marijuana users in young adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 200-209.

Kandel, D.B. (1988) Issues of sequencing of adolescent drug use and other problem behaviors. Drugs and Society, 3, 55-76.

Kandel, D.B. and Davies, M. (1992) Progression to regular marijuana involvement: Phenomenology and risk factors for near daily use. In M. Glantz and R. Pickens (eds) Vulnerability to Drug Abuse. Washington: American Psychological Association.

Kandel, D. and Faust, R. (1975) Sequence and stages in patterns of adolescent drug use. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 923-932.

Kandel, D.B. and Logan, J.A. (1984) Patterns of drug use from adolescence to young adulthood: I. Periods of risk for initiation, continued use and discontinuation. American Journal of Public Health, 1984, 74, 660-666.

Kandel, D.B., Davies, M., Karus, D. and Yamaguchi, K. (1986) The consequences in young adulthood of adolescent drug involvement. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1986, 43, 746-754.

Kaplan, H.B., Martin, S. and Robbins, C. (1982) Pathways to adolescent drug use: self-derogation, peer influence, weakening of social controls, and early substance use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 25, 270-289.

Kaplan, H.B. and Johnson, R.J. (1992) relationships between circumstances surrounding initial drug use and escalation of drug use: moderating effects of gender and early adolescent experiences. In M. Glantz and R. Pickens (eds) Vulnerability to Drug Abuse. Washington: American Psychological Association.

Kleiman, M.A.R. (1989) Marijuana: Costs of Abuse, Costs of Control. New York: Greenwood Press.

Kleiman, M.A.R. (1992) Against Excess: Drug Policy for Results. New York: Basic Books.

Kolansky, H. and Moore, W.T. (1971) Effects of marihuana on adolescents and young adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 216, 486-492.

Top of page

Lantner, I.L. (1982) Marijuana abuse by children and teenagers: a pediatrician's view. Cohen, S. (1982) Cannabis effects upon adolescent motivation. In National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning. Rockville, Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

McGee, R.O. and Feehan, M. (1993) Cannabis use among New Zealand adolescents. New Zealand Medical Journal, 106, 345. McGlothin, W.H. and West, L.J. (1968) The marijuana problem: An overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 370-378.

Meeks, J.E. (1982) Some clinical comments on chronic marijuana use in adolescent psychiatric patients. In National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning. Rockville, Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Mendelson, J.H., Rossi, A.M., and Meyer, R.E. (1974) The Use of Marihuana: A Psychological and Physiological Inquiry. New York: Plenum Press.

Millman, R.B. and Sbriglio, R. (1986) Patterns of use and psychopathology in chronic marijuana users. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9, 533-545.

National Academy of Science. (1982) Marijuana and Health. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press.

Milman, D.H. (1982) Psychological effects of cannabis in adolescence. In National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning. Rockville, Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

National Academy of Science, Institute of Medicine. (1982) Marijuana and Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Negrete, J (1983) Psychiatric aspects of cannabis use. In K.O. Fehr and H. Kalant (eds) Cannabis and Health Hazards. Toronto: Addiction
Research Foundation.

Negrete, J (1988) What's happened to the cannabis debate? British Journal of Addiction, 83, 359-372.

Newcombe, M.D. (1992) Understanding the multidimensional nature of drug use and abuse: The role of consumption, risk factors and protective factors. In M. Glantz and R. Pickens (eds) Vuln 7. The ps Drug Abuse. Washington: American Psychological Association.

Newcombe, M.D. and Bentler, P. (1988) Consequences of Adolescent Drug Use: Impact on the Lives of Young Adults. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications.

Top of page

O'Donnell, J.A. and Clayton, R.R. (1982) The stepping stone hypothesis - marijuana, heroin and causality. Chemical Dependencies, 4, 229-241.

Osgood, D.W., Johnston, L.D., O'Malley, P.M., and Bachman, J.G. (1988) The generality of deviance in late adolescence and early adulthood. American Sociological Review, 53, 81-93.

Polich, J.M., Ellickson, P.L., Reuter, P., and Kahan, J.P. (1984) Strategies for Controlling Adolescent Drug Use. Santa Monica, California: The Rand Corporation.

Robins, L., Darvish, H.S., and Murphy, G.E. (1970) The long-term outcome for adolescent drug users: A follow-up study of 76 users and 146 nonusers. In J. Zubin and A.M. Freedman (eds) The Psychopathology of Adolescence. New York: Grune and Stratton.

Robins, L. (1993) Vietnam veterans' rapid recovery from heroin addiction: a fluke or normal expectation? Addiction, 88, 1041-1054.

Rubin, V. and Comitas, L. (1975) Ganja in Jamaica: A Medical Anthropological Study of Chronic Marihuana Use. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.

Scheier, L.M. and Newcombe, M.D. (1991) Psychosocial predictors of drug use initiation and escalation: an expansion of the multiple risk factors hypothesis using longitudinal data. Contemporary Drug Problems, 18, 31-73.

Shedler, J. and Block, J. (1990) Adolescent drug use and psychological health. American Psychologist, 45, 612-630.

Smith, D.E. (1968) Acute and chronic toxicity of marijuana. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 2, 37-47.

Smith, D.E. and Seymour, R.B. (1982) Clinical perspectives on the toxicity of marijuana: 1967-1981. In National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning. Rockville, Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Tennant, F.S. and Groesbeck, C.J. (1972) Psychiatric effects of hashish. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 383-386.

Yamaguchi, K. and Kandel, D.B. (1984a) Patterns of drug use from adolescence to adulthood. II Sequences of progression. American Journal of Public Health, 1984, 74, 668-672.

Yamaguchi, K. and Kandel, D.B. (1984b) Patterns of drug use from adolescence to adulthood. III Predictors of progression. American Journal of Public Health, 1984, 74, 673-681.

Top of page

American Psychiatric Association. (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R). (3rd Edition, Revised) Washington: American Psychiatric Association.

Anthony, J and Helzer, J.E. (1991) Syndromes of drug abuse and dependence. In L.N. Robins and D.A. Regier (eds) Psychiatric Disorders in America. New York: Free Press, MacMillan.

Brook, J.S., Cohen, P., Whiteman, M. and Gordon, A.S. (1992) Psychosocial risk factors in the transition from moderate to heavy use or abuse of drugs. In M. Glantz and R. Pickens (eds) Vulnerability to Drug Abuse. Washington: American Psychological Association.

Chen, R., Mattick, R.P and Baillie, A. (1993) Clients of Treatment Service Agencies. March, 1992 Census Findings. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Compton, D.R., Dewey, W.L. and Martin, B.R. (1990) Cannabis dependence and tolerance production. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 9, 128-147.

De Silva, R., DuPont, R.L. and Russell, G.K. (eds) (1981) Treating the Marijuana-Dependent Person. New York: The American Council on Marijuana and Other Psychoactive Drugs, Inc.

Didcott, P., Flaherty, B. and Muir, C. (1988) A profile of addicts in residential treatment in New South Wales. Directorate of the Drug Offensive, In House Report Series. Sydney: New South Wales Department of Health.

Edwards, G. (1982) Cannabis and the question of dependence. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. Report of the Expert Group on the Effects of Cannabis Use. London: Home Office.

Edwards, G. and Gross, M.M. (1976) Alcohol dependence: provisional description of a clinical syndrome. British Medical Journal, 1, 1058-1061.

Edwards, G., Arif, A. & Hodgson, R. (1981) Nomenclature and classification of drug-and alcohol-related problems: A WHO memorandum. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 59 (2), 225-242.

Engstrom, A., Allebeck, P., Rodwall, Y. and Rydberg, U. (1985) Adverse psychic effects of cannabis - with special focus on Sweden. In D.J. Harvey, W. Paton and G. Nahas (Eds) Marihuana '84: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Cannabis. Oxford: IRL Press.

Top of page

Fehr, K.O. and Kalant, H. (1983) (Eds) Cannabis and Health Hazards. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Georgotas, A. and Zeidenberg, P. (1979) Observations on the effects of four weeks of heavy marijuana smoking on group interaction and individual behavior. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 20, 427-432.

Hanniffin, J. (1988) The ownership debate: Cannabis and the concept of "cannabism". In G. Chesher, P. Consroe, and R. Musty (eds) Marijuana: An International Research Report. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Heather, N. and Tebbut, J. (eds) (1989) An Overview of the Effectiveness of Treatment for Drug and Alcohol Problems. National Campaign Against Drug Abuse Monograph Series Number 11. Canberra:
Australian Government Publishing Service.

Helzer, J.E., Burnham, A. and McEvoy, L.T. (1991) Alcohol abuse and dependence. In L.N. Robins and D.A. Regier (eds) Psychiatric Disorders in America. New York: Free Press, MacMillan.

Hendin, H., Haas, A.P., Singer, P., Eller, M. and Ulman, R. (1987) Living High: Daily Marijuana Use Among Adults. New York: Human Sciences Press.

Hollister, L.E. (1986) Health aspects of cannabis. Pharmacological Reviews, 38, 1-20.

Jones, R.T. (1984) Marijuana: Health and treatment issues. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7, 703-712.

Jones, R.T. and Benowitz, N. (1976) The 30-day trip - clinical studies of cannabis tolerance and dependence. In M Braude and S. Szara (eds) Pharmacology of Marijuana. Volume 2. New York: Academic Press.

Jones, R.T., Benowitz, N. and Herning, R.I. (1981) The clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 21, 143S-152S.

Top of page

Kandel, D.B. and Davies, M. (1992) Progression to regular marijuana involvement: Phenomenology and risk factors for near daily use. In M. Glantz and R. Pickens (eds) Vulnerability to Drug Abuse. Washington: American Psychological Association.

Kleber, H.D. (1989) Treatment of drug dependence: What works? International Review of Psychiatry, 1, 81-100.

Kosten, T.R., Rounsaville, B.J., Babor, T.F., Spitzer, R.L. and Williams, J.B.W. (1987) Substance-use disorders in DSM-III-R. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 834-843.

McGee, R.O. and Feehan, M. (1993) Cannabis use among New Zealand adolescents. New Zealand Medical Journal, 106, 345.

Miller, N.S. and Gold, M.S. (1989) The diagnosis of marijuana (Cannabis) dependence. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 6, 183-192.

Miller, N.S., Gold, M. and Pottash, A (1989) A 12-step treatment approach for marijuana (Cannabis) dependence. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 6, 241-250.

Miller, W.M. and Hester, R.K. (1986) The effectiveness of alcoholism treatment: what research reveals. In Miller, W.M. and Heather, N. (eds) Treating Addictive Behaviors: Processes of Change. New York: Plenum Press.

National Academy of Science, Institute of Medicine. (1982) Marijuana and Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Newcombe, M.D. (1992) Understanding the multidimensional nature of drug use an abuse: The role of consumption, risk factors and protective factors. In M. Glantz and R. Pickens (eds) Vulnerability to Drug Abuse. Washington: American Psychological Association.

Robins, L.N. and Regier, D.A. (1991) (Eds) Psychiatric Disorders in America. New York: Free Press, MacMillan.

Roffman, R.A., Stephens, R.S., Simpson, E.E. and Whitaker, D.L. (1988) Treatment of marijuana dependence: preliminary results. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 20, 129-137.

Rounsaville, B.J., Kosten, T.R., Williams, J.B.W. and Spitzer, R.L. (1987) A field trial of DSM-III-R psychoactive substance dependence disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 351-355.

Rounsaville, B.J., Bryant, K., Babor, T., Kranzler, H. and Kadden, R. (1993) Cross-system agreement for substance use disorders. Addiction, 88, 337-348.

Top of page

Shedler, J. and Block, J. (1990) Adolescent drug use and psychological health. American Psychologist, 45, 612-630.

Smith, J.W., Schmeling, G. and Knowles, P.L. (1988) A marijuana smoking cessation clinical trial utilizing THC-free marijuana, aversion therapy, and self-management counseling. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 5, 89-98.

Stephens, R.S. and Roffman, R.A. (1993) Adult marijuana dependence. In J.S. Baer, G.A. Marlatt, and R.J. MacMahon (eds) Addictive Behaviors Across the Lifespan: Prevention, Treatment and Policy Issues. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications.

Tunving, K., Lundquist, T., and Eriksson, D. (1988) "A way out of the fog": An outpatient program for cannabis users. In G. Chesher, P. Consroe, and R. Musty (eds) Marijuana: An International Research Report. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Weller, R.A. and Halikas, J. (1980) Objective criteria for the diagnosis of marijuana abuse. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168, 98-103.

Weller, R.A. and Halikas, J. (1982) Changes in effects of marijuana: a five- to six-year follow-up. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 43, 362-365.

Weller, R.A., Halikas, J. and Morse, C. (1984) Alcohol and marijuana: comparison of use and abuse in regular marijuana users. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 45, 377-379.

Wells, J.E., Bushnell, J.A., Joyce, P.R., Oakley-Browne, M.A. and Hornblow, A.R. (1992) Problems with alcohol, drugs and gambling in Christchurch, New Zealand. In M. Abbot and K. Evans (eds) Alcohol and Drug Dependence and Disorders of Impulse Control. Auckland: Alcohol Liquor Advisory Council.

Woody, G.E., Cottler, L.B. and Caciola, J. (1993) Severity of dependence: data from the DSM-IV field trials. Addiction, 88, 1573-1579.

Zweben, J.E. and O'Connell, K. (1992) Strategies for breaking marijuana dependence. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 24, 165-171.

Top of page

Agarwal, A.K., Sethi, B.B. and Gupta, S (1975). Physical and cognitive effects of chronic bhang (cannabis) intake. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 17(1), 1-7.

Block, R.I., Farnham, S., Braverman, K., Noyes, R., Jr. and Ghoneim, M.M. (1990). Long-term marijuana use and subsequent effects on learning and cognitive functions related to school achievement: preliminary study. In J.W. Spencer and J.J. Boren (Ed.), Residual Effects of Abused Drugs on Behavior, National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph No. 101. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Bowman, M. and Pihl, R.O. (1973). Cannabis: Psychological effects of chronic heavy use. A controlled study of intellectual functioning in chronic users of high potency cannabis. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.), 29, 159-170.

Brill, N.Q. and Christie, R.L. (1974). Marihuana use and psychosocial adaptation: Follow-up study of a collegiate population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31, 713-719.

Campbell, A.M.G., Evans, M., Thomson, J.L.G. and Williams, M.J. (1971). Cerebral atrophy in young cannabis smokers. The Lancet, 2, 1219-1224.

Carlin, A.S. (1986). Neuropsychological consequences of drug abuse. In I. Grant and. K.M. Adams (Eds.), Neuropsychological Assessment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders (pp. 478-497). New York: Oxford University Press.

Carlin, A.S. and Trupin, E.W. (1977). The effect of long-term chronic marijuana use on neuropsychological functioning. International Journal of the Addictions, 12(5), 617-624.

Carter, W.E., Coggins, W. and Doughty, P.L. (1980). Cannabis in Costa Rica: A Study of Chronic Marihuana Use. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues.

Cohen, S. (1976). The 94-day cannabis study. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 282 (pp. 211-220).

Cohen, S. (1982) Cannabis effects upon adolescent motivation. In National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning. Rockville, Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Culver, C.M. and King, F.W. (1974). Neuropsychological assessment of undergraduate marihuana and LSD users. Archives of General Psychiatry, 31(5), 707-711.

Top of page

Deahl, M. (1991). Cannabis and memory loss. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 249-252.

Dornbush, R.L., Clare, G., Zaks, A., Crown, P., Volavka, J. and Fink, M. (1972). Twenty-one day administration of marijuana in male volunteers. In M. F. Lewis (Ed.), Current Research in Marihuana (pp. 115-127). New York: Academic Press.

Entin, E.E. and Goldzung, P.J. (1973). Residual effects of marihuana use on learning and memory. Psychological Record, 23(2), 169-178.

Fehr, K.O. and Kalant, H. (1983). Long-term effects of cannabis on cerebral function: A review of the clinical and experiemntal literature. In Fehr, K.O. and Kalant, H. (Eds), Cannabis and Health Hazards (pp. 501-576). Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Fletcher, J.M. and Satz, P. (1977). A methodological commentary on the Egyptian study of chronic hashish use. Bulletin on Narcotics, 29(2), 29-34.

Frank, I.M., Lessin, P.J., Tyrell, E.D., Hahn, P.M. and Szara, S. (1976) Acute and cumulative effects of marihuana smoking in hospitalized subjects: A 36 day study. In M Braude and S. Szara (Eds) Pharmacology of Marihuana, Volume 2. New York: Raven Press.

Fried, P. (1993) Prenatal exposure to tobacco and marijuana: Effects during pregnancy, infancy, and early childhood. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 36(2), 319-337.

Gianutsos, R. and Litwack, A.R. (1976). Chronic marijauna smokers show reduced coding into long-term storage. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 7(3), 277-279.

Grant, I., Rochford, J., Fleming, T. and Stunkard, A. (1973). A neuropsychological assessment of the effects of moderate marihuana use. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 156(4), 278-280.

Harshman, R.A., Crawford, H.J. and Hecht, E. (1976) Marihuana, cognitive style, and lateralized hemisphere. In S. Cohen and R Stillman (Eds) The Therapeutic Potential of Marihuana. New York: Plenum Press.

Herkenham, M., Lynn, A.B., Little, M.D., Johnson, M.R., Melvin, L.S., De Costa, B.R. and Rice, K (1990). Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 87, 1932-1936.

Hochman, J.S. and Brill, N.Q. (1973). Chronic marijuana use and psychosocial adaptation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130(2), 132-140.

Top of page

Kokkevi, A. and Dornbush, R. (1977). Psychological test characteristics of long-term hashish users. In C. Stefanis, R. Dornbush, and M. Fink (Eds), Hashish: Studies of Long-Term Use. New York: Raven Press.

Kolansky, H. and Moore, R.T. (1971). Effects of marihuana on adolescents and young adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 216(3), 486-492.

Kolansky, H. and Moore, R.T. (1972). Toxic effects of chronic marihuana use. Journal of the American Medical Association, 222(1), 35-41.

Leavitt, J., Webb, P., Norris, G., Struve, F., Straumanis, J., Patrick, G., Fitz-Gerald, J. and Nixon, F. (1991). Differences in complex reaction time between chronic heavy THC users and non-user controls. Poster presented at the 53rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Palm Beach, Florida, 10-17 June.

Leavitt, J., Webb, P., Norris, G., Struve, F., Straumanis, J., Fitz-Gerald, M., Nixon, F., Patrick, G. and Manno, J. (1992). Performance of chronic daily marijuana users on neuropsychological tests. Poster presented at the 54th Annual Scientific Meet that any College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Keystone, Colorado, 20-25 June.

Leavitt, J., Webb, P., Norris, G., Struve, F., Patrick, G., Fitz-Gerald, M. and Nixon, F. (1993). Performance of long-term THC users on tests of reaction time using Sternberg's procedure. Poster presented at the 55th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Toronto, Canada, 12-17 June.

Mendelson, J.H., Rossi, M.A., Meyer, R.E. (Eds). (1974). The Use of Marihuana: A psychological and physiological inquiry. New York: Plenum Press.

Mendhiratta, S.S., Wig, N.N. and Verma, S.K. (1978). Some psychological correlates of long-term heavy cannabis users. British Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 482-486.

Mendhiratta, S.S., Varma, V.K., Dang, R., Malhatra, A.K., Das, K., and Neha, R. (1988) Cannabis and cognitive functions. British Journal of Addiction, 83, 749-753.

Miller, L.L. and Branconnier, R.J. (1983). Cannabis: effects on memory and the cholinergic limbic system. Psychological Bulletin, 93(3), 441-456.

Top of page

NIDA. (1982). Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Nelson, N. (1984). The National Adult Reading Test. NFER.

Page, J.B., Fletcher, J. and True, W.R. (1988). Psychosociocxultural persepctives on chronic cannabis use: The Costa Rican follow-up. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 20(1), 57-65.

Ray, R., Prabhu, G.G., Mohan, D., Nath, L.M. and Neki, J.S. (1978). The association between chronic cannabis use and cognitive functions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 3(5), 365-368.

Rochford, J., Grant, I. and LaVigne, G. (1977). Medical students and drugs: Further neuropsychological and use pattern considerations. International Journal of the Addictions, 12(8), 1057-1065.

Rubin, V. and Comitas, L. (1975) Ganja in Jamaica: A medical anthropological study of chronic marihuana use. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.

Satz, P., Fletcher, J.M. and Sutker, L.S. (1976). Neuropsychologic, intellectual and personality correlates of chronic marijuana use in native Costa Ricans. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 282, 266-306.

Schaeffer, J., Andrysiak, T. and Ungerleider, J.T. (1981). Cognition amd long-term use of Ganja (cannabis). Science, 213(4506), 465-466.

Schwartz, R.H., Gruenewald, P.J., Klitzner, M. and Fedio, P. (1989). Short-term memory impairment in cannabis-dependent adolescents. American Journal of Disorders of Childhood, 143, 1214-1219.

Solowij, N., Michie, P.T. and Fox, A.M. (1991). Effects of long-term cannabis use on selective attention: An event-related potential study. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 40, 683-688.

Solowij, N., Michie, P.T. and Fox, A.M. (1992). Frequency and duration of cannabis use differentially affect brain function in a selective attention task. Paper presented at the 10th International Australasian Winter Conference on Brain Research (AWCBR), Queenstown, New Zealand, 16-21 August; and at the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre Fifth Anniversary Annual Symposium on the Correlates and Consequences of Excessive Drug Use, University of New South Wales, Sydney Australia, 4 December.

Solowij, N., Michie, P.T. and Fox, A.M. (1993). Differential impairments of selective attention due to frequency and duration of cannabis use. Paper presented at the International Cannabis Research Society Annual Meeting, Satellite to the 55th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Toronto, Cannada, 10-17 June.

Top of page

Soueif, M.I. (1971). The use of cannabis in Egypt: A behavioural study. Bulletin on Narcotics, 23(4), 17-28.

Soueif, M.I. (1975). Chronic cannabis users: Further analysis of objective test results. Bulletin on Narcotics, 27(4), 1-26.

Soueif, M.I. (1976a). Differential association between chronic cannabis use and brain function deficits. Annals of the New York Acadamy of Sciences, 282, 323-343.

Soueif, M.I. (1976b). Some determinants of psychological deficits associated with chronic cannabis consumption. Bulletin on Narcotics, 28(1), 25-42.

Soueif, M.I. (1977). The Egyptian study of chronic cannabis use: A reply to Fletcher and Satz. Bulletin on Narcotics, 29(2), 35-43.

Stefanis, C., Boulougouris, J. and Liakos, A. (1976). Clinical and psychophysiological effects of cannabis in long-term users. In Braude, M and Szara, S. (Eds.), Pharmacology of Marihuana. New York: Raven Press, pp. 659-665.

Stefanis, C., Dornbush, R. and Fink, M. (1977). Hashish: Studies of Long-Term Use. New York: Raven Press.

Straumanis, J., Struve, F. and Patrick, G. (1992). Cerebral evoked potentials in chronic marihuana users. Poster presented at the 54th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Keystone, Colorado, 20-25 June.

Struve, F., Straumanis, J., Patrick, G., Norris, G., Nixon, F., Fitz-Gerald, M., Manno, J., Leavitt, J. and Webb, P. (1993). Topographic quantitative EEG sequelae of chronic cumulative THC exposure: Recent and continuing studies. Paper presented at the International Cannabis Research Society Annual Meeting, Satellite to the 55th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Toronto, Canada, 10-17 June.

Stuss, D.T. (1991) Interference effects on memory function in postleukotomy patients: An attentional perspective. In Levin, H.S., Eisenberg, H.M. and Benton, A.L.(Eds) Frontal lobe function and dysfunction. New York: Oxford University Press, pp 157-172.

Tennant, F.S. and Groesbeck, C.J. (1972). Psychiatric effects of hashish. Archives of General Psychiatry, 27(1), 133-136.

Varma, V.J., Malhotra, A.K., Dang, R., Das, K. and Nehra, R. (1988). Cannabis and cognitive functions: a prospective study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 21, 147-152.

Weckowicz, T.E. and Janssen, D.V. (1973). Cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values in heavy marijuana smokers ans nonsmoker controls. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 81(3), 264-269.

Weckowicz, T.E., Collier, G. and Spreng, L. (1977). Field dependence, cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values in heavy cannabis users and nonuser controls. Psychological Reports, 41, 291-302.

Wert, R and Raulin, M.L. (1986a) The chronic cerebral effects of cannabis use. I. Methodological issues and neurological findings. The International Journal of the Addictions, 21(6), 605-628.

Wert, R and Raulin, M.L. (1986b) The chronic cerebral effects of cannabis use. II. Psychological findings and conclusions. The International Journal of the Addictions, 21(6), 629-642.

Wig, N.N. and Varma, V.K. (1977). Patterns of long-term heavy cannabis use in North India and its effects on cognitive functions: a preliminary report. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2(3), 211-219.

Top of page

Ali, S.F., Newport, G.D., Scallet, A.C., Gee, K.W., Paule, M.G., Brown, R.M. and Slikker, W., Jr. (1989) Effects of chronic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration on neurotransmitter concentrations and receptor binding in the rat brain. Neurotoxicology, 10, 491-500.

Ali, S.F., Newport, G.D., Scallet, A.C., Paule, M.G., Bailey, J.R. and Slikker, W., Jr. (1991) Chronic marijuana smoke exposure in the rhesus monkey. IV: Neurochemical effects and comparison to acute and chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 40(3), 677-682.

Barrat, E.S. and Adams, P.M. (1972) The effects of chronic marijuana administration on brain functioning in cats. Clinical Toxicology, 5(1), 36.

Bloom, A.S. (1984) Effects of cannabinoids on neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. In Agurell, S., Dewey, W.L. and Willette, R.E. (Eds), The Cannabinoids: Chemical, Pharmacological and Therapeutic Aspects (pp. 575-589). New York: Academic Press.

Brewer, C. (1972) Cerebral atrophy in young cannabis smokers. Lancet, (January 15), 143.

Bull, J. (1971) Cerebral atrophy in young cannabis smokers. Lancet, (December 25), 1420.

Campbell, A.M.G., Evans, M., Thomson, J.L.G. and Williams, M.J. (1971) Cerebral atrophy in young cannabis smokers. Lancet, 2, 1219-1224.

Campbell, K.A., Foster, T.C., Hampson, R.E. and Deadwyler, S.A. (1986a) Effects of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on sensory-evoked discharges of granule cells in the dentate gyrus of behaving rats. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 239(3), 941-945.

Campbell, K.A., Foster, T.C., Hampson, R.E. and Deadwyler, S.A. (1986b) 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol differentially affects sensory-evoked potentials in the rat dentate gyrus. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 239(3), 936-940.

Charalambous, A., Marciniak, G., Shiue, C.-Y., Dewey, S.L., Schlyer, D.J., Wolf, A.P. and Makriyannis, A. (1991) PET studies in the primate brain and biodistribution in mice using (-)-5'-18F-8-THC. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 40(3), 503-507.

Co, B.T., Goodwin, D.W., Gado, M., Mikhael, M. and Hill, S.Y. (1977) Absence of cerebral atrophy in chronic cannabis users: Evaluation by computerized transaxial tomography. Journal of the American Medical Association, 237(12), 1229-1230.

Cohen, S. (1976) The 94-day cannabis study. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 282 (R.L. Dornbush, A.M. Freedman and M. Fink (Eds) Chronic Cannabis Use), 211-220.

Top of page

Domino, E.F. (1981) Cannabinoids and the cholinergic system. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 21, 249s-255s.

Feeney, D.M. (1979) Marihuana and epilepsy: Paradoxical anticonvulsant and convulsant effects. In G.G. Nahas and W.D.M. Paton (Eds), Marihuana: Biological Effects. Analysis, metabolism, cellular responses, reproduction and brain (pp. 643-657). Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Fehr, K.O. and Kalant, H. (Eds) (1983) Cannabis and Health Hazards. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Feinberg, I., Jones, R., Walker, J., Cavness, C. and Floyd, T. (1976) Effects of marijuana extract and tetrahydrocannabinol on electroencephalographic sleep patterns. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 19(6), 782-794.

Fink, M. (1976) Effects of acute and chronic inhalation of hashish, marijuana, and 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on brain electrical activity in man: Evidence for tissue tolerance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 282 (R.L. Dornbush, A.M. Freedman and M. Fink (Eds) Chronic Cannabis Use), 387-398.

Fink, M., Volavka, J., Panayiotopoulos, C.P. and Stefanis, C. (1976) Quantitative EEG studies of marijuana, 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and hashish in man. In M Braude and Szara, S. (Eds), Pharmacology of Marihuana (pp. 383-391). New York: Raven Press.

Fried, P.A. and Charlebois, A.T. (1979) Canning of the College on P pregnancy: First and second generation effects in rats. Physiological Psychology, 7, 307-310.

Hannerz, J. and Hindmarsh, T. (1983) Neurological and neuroradiological examination of chronic cannabis smokers. Annals of Neurology, 13(2), 207-210.

Harper, J.W., Heath, R.G. and Myers, W.A. (1977) Effects of cannabis sativa on ultrastructure of the synapse in monkey brain. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 3(2), 87-93.

Heath, R.G., Fitzjarrell, A.T., Fontana, C.J. and Garey, R.E. (1980) Cannabis sativa: effects on brain function and ultrastructure in rhesus monkeys. Biological Psychiatry, 15(5), 657-690.

Herning, R.I., Jones, R.T. and Peltzman, D.J. (1979) Changes in human event-related potentials with prolonged delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) use. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 47, 556-570.

Hockman, C.H., Perrin, R.G. and Kalant, H. (1971) Electroencephalographic and behavioral alterations produced by 1-tetrahydrocannabinol. Science, 172, 968-970.

Institute of Medicine. (1982) Marijuana and Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Top of page

Karacan, I., Fernandez-Salas, A., Coggins, W.J., Carter, W.E., Wiliams, R.L., Thornby, J.I., Salis, P.J., Okawa, M. and Villaume, J.P. (1976) Sleep electroencephalographic -electrooculographic characteristics of chronic marijuana users. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 282 (R.L. Dornbush, A.M. Freedman and M. Fink (Eds) Chronic Cannabis Use), 348-374.

Kuehnle, J., Mendelson, J.H. and David, K.R. (1977) Computed tomographic examination of heavy marijuana users. Journal of the American Medical Association, 237(1231-1232),

Landfield, P.W., Cadwallader, L.B. and Vinsant, S. (1988) Quantitative changes in hippocampal structure following long-term exposure to 9-tetrahydrocannabinol: possible mediation by glucocorticoid systems. Brain Research, 443, 47-62.

Luthra, Y.K., Rosenkrantz, H. and Braude, M (1976) Cerebral and cerebellar neurochemical changes and behavioral manifestations in rats chronically exposed to marijuana smoke. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 35, 455-465.

Marciniak, G., Charalambous, A., Shiue, C.-Y., Dewey, S.L., Schlyer, D.J., Makriyannis, A. and Wolf, A.P. (1991) 18F-Labeled tetrahydrocannabinol: synthesis; and PET studies in a baboon. Journal of Laboratory and Comparative Radiophysiology, 30, 413-415.

Martin, B.R. (1986) Cellular effects of cannabinoids. Pharmacological Reviews, 38(1), 45-74.

Mathew, R.J., Tant, S. and Berger, C. (1986) Regional cerebral blood flow in marijuana smokers. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 567-571.

Mathew, R.J. and Wilson, W.H. (1992) The effects of marijuana on cerebral blood flow and metabolism. In L. Murphy and A. Bartke (Ed.) Marijuana/Cannabinoids: Neurobiology and neurophysiology (pp. 337-386). Boca Raton, Fl.: CRC Press.

McGahan, J.P., Dublin, A.B. and Sassenrath, E. (1984) Long-term delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment: Computed tomography of the brains of rhesus monkeys. AJDC, 138, 1109-1112.

Moreau (de Tours), J.J. (1845) Du Hachisch et de l'Alienation Mentale: Etudes Psychologiques. Paris: Libraire de Fortin, Masson. (English edition: New York: Raven Press 1972).

Musselman, D.L., Haden, C., Caudle, J., Lewine, R.R.J. and Risch, S (1993) Cerebrospinal fluid study of cannabinoid users and normal controls. Presented at the 55th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Toronto, Canada, June 12-17.

Myers, W.A. and Heath, R.G. (1979) Cannabis sativa: Ultrastructural changes in organelles of neurons in brain septal region of monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 4(1), 9-17.

Nahas, G.G. (Ed) (1984) Marihuana in Science and Medicine. New York: Raven Press.

Oviedo, A., Glowa, J. and Herkenham, M. (1993) Chronic cannabinoid administration alters cannabinoid receptor binding in rat brain: a quantitative autoradiographic study. Brain Research, 616, 293-302.

Pertwee, R.G. (1988) The central neuropharmacology of psychotropic cannabinoids. Pharmacol Ther, 36, 189-261.

Richmon, J., Murawski, B., Matsumiya, Y., Duffy, F.H. and Lombroso, C.T. (1974) Long term effects of chronic marihuana smoking. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 36(2), 223-224.

Rosenkrantz, H. (1983) Cannabis, marihuana, and cannabinoid toxicological manifestations in man and animals. In K.O. Fehr and H. Kalant (Eds), Cannabis and Health Hazards: Proceedings of an ARF/WHO Scientific Meeting on Adverse Health and Behavioral Consequences of Cannabis Use (pp. 91-175). Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Rubin, V. and Comitas, L. (1975) Ganja in Jamaica: A medical anthropological study of chronic marihuana use. The Hague: Mouton Publishers.

Rumbaugh, C.L., Fang, HH., Wilson, G.H., Higgins, R.E. and Mestek, M.F. (1980) Cerebral CT findings in drug abuse: Clinical and experimental observations. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 4(3), 330-334.

Top of page

Scallett, A.C., Uemura, E., Andrews, A., Ali, S.F., McMillan, D.E., Paule, M.G., Brown, R.M. and Slikker, W., Jr. (1987) Morphometric studies of the rat hippocampus following chronic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Brain Research, 436, 193-198.

Shannon, M.E. and Fried, P.A. (1972) The macro- and microdistribution and polymorphic electroencephalographic effects of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat. Psychopharmacologia (Berl.), 27, 141-156.

Slikker, W., Jr., Paule, M.G., Ali, S.F., Scallet, A and Bailey, J.R. (1992) Behavioral, neurochemical, and neurohistological effects of chronic marijuana smoke exposure in the nonhuman primate. In L. Murphy and A. Bartke (Ed.), Marijuana/Cannabinoids: Neurobiology and Neurophysiology (pp. 219-273). Boca Raton, Fl.: CRC Press.

Stefanis, C. (1976) Biological aspects of cannabis use. In R Petersen (Ed.), The International Challenge of Drug Abuse (pp. 149-178). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Stiglick, A. and Kalant, H. (1982a) Learning impairment in the radial-arm maze following prolonged cannabis treatment in rats. Psychopharmacology, 77(2), 117-123.

Stiglick, A. and Kalant, H. (1982b) Residual effects of prolonged cannabis administration on exploration and DRL performance in rats. Psychopharmacology, 77(2), 124-128.

Struve, F.A. and Straumanis, J.J. (1990) Electroencephalographic and evoked potential methods in human marihuana research: Historical review and future trends. Drug Development Research, 20, 369-388.

Struve, F., Straumanis, J., Patrick, G., Norris, G., Leavitt, J. and Webb, P. (1991). Topographic quantitative EEG findings in subjects with 18+ years of cumulative daily THC exposure. 53rd Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Palm Beach, Florida USA, June.

Struve, F., Straumanis, J., Patrick, G., Norris, G., Nixon, F., Fitz-Gerald, M., Manno, J., Leavitt, J. and Webb, P. (1993) Topographic quantitative EEG sequelae of chronic cumulative THC exposure: recent and continuing studies. 55th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Toronto, Canada, June 10-17.

Susser, M. (1972) Cerebral atrophy in young cannabis smokers. Lancet, (January 1), 41-42.

Tunving, K., Thulin, O., Risberg, J. and Warkentin, S. (1986) Regional cerebral blood flow in long-term heavy cannabis use. Psychiatry Research, 17, 15-21.

Volkow, N.D., Gillespi, H., Mullani, N., Tancredi, L., Hollister, L., Ivanovic, M., and Grant, C. (1991) Use of positron emission tomography to investigate the action of marihuana in the human brain. In G. Nahas and C. Latour (Eds), Physiopathology of Illicit Drugs: Cannabis, Cocaine, Opiates (pp. 3-11). Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Wert, R and Raulin, M.L. (1986) The chronic cerebral effects of cannabis use. I. Methodological issues and neurological findings. The International Journal of the Addictions, 21(6), 605-628.

Westlake, T.M., Howlett, A.C., Ali, S.F., Paule, M.G. and Scallett, W. Jr. (1991) Chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol fails to irreversibly alter brain cannabinoid receptors. Brain Research, 544, 145-149.
Allebeck, P. (1991) Cannabis and schizophrenia: is there a causal association? In G.G. Nahas and C. Latour (Eds) Physiopathology of Illicit Drugs: Cannabis, Cocaine, Opiates Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Top of page

Allebeck, P., Adamsson, C., Engstrom, A. and Rydberg, U. (1993) Cannabis and schizophrenia: a longitudinal study of cases treated in Stockholm county. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 88, 21-24.

Andreasson, S., Allebeck, P, and Rydberg, U. (1989) Schizophrenia in users and nonusers of cannabis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79, 505-510.

Andreasson, S., Allebeck, P, Engstrom, A. and Rydberg, U. (1987) Cannabis and schizophrenia: A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. Lancet, 2, 1483-1486.

Angrist, B. (1983) Psychoses induced by central nervous system stimulants and related drugs. In I. Creese (ed) Stimulants: Neurochemical, Behavioral and Clinical Perspectives. New York: Raven Press.

Anthony, J and Helzer, J.E. (1991) Syndromes of drug abuse and dependence. In L.N. Robins and D.A. Regier (eds) Psychiatric Disorders in America. New York: Free Press, MacMillan.

Arndt, S., Tyrrell, G., Flaum, M. and Andreasen, N (1992) Comorbidity of substance abuse and schizophrenia: the role of premorbid adjustment. Psychological Medicine, 22, 379-388.

Beaubruhn, M. and Knight, F. (1973) Psychiatric assessment of 30 chronic users of cannabis and 30 matched controls. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 309-311.

Bell, D. (1973) The experimental reproduction of amphetamine psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 29, 35-40.

Bernardson, G. and Gunne, L.M. (1972) Forty-six cases of psychosis in cannabis abusers. International Journal of Addictions, 7, 9-16.

Bland, R.C., Newman, S and Orn, H. (1987) Schizophrenia: lifetime co-morbidity in a community sample. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 75, 383-391.

Breakey, W.R., Goodell, H., Lorenz, P and McHugh, P.R. (1974) Hallucinogenic drugs as precipitants of schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 4, 255-261.

Brill, H. and Nahas, G.G. (1984) Cannabis intoxication and mental illness. In G.G. Nahas Marihuana in Science and Medicine. New York: Raven Press.

Top of page

Carney, M.W.P., Bacelle, L., and Robinson, B. (1984) Psychosis after cannabis use. British Medical Journal, 288, 1047.

Chaudry, H.R., Moss, H.B., Bashir, A. and Suliman, T. (1991) Cannabis psychosis following bhang ingestion. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 1075-1081.

Chopra, G.S. and Smith, J.W. (1974) Psychotic reactions following cannabis use in East Indians. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 24-27.

Cleghorn, J.M., Kaplan, R.D., Szechtman, B., Szechtman, H., Brown, G.M. and Franco, S. (1991) Substance abuse and schizophrenia: effect on symptoms but not on neurocognitive function. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 52, 26-30.

Cohen, S. and Johnson, K. (1988) Psychosis from alcohol or drug abuse. British Medical Journal, 297, 1270-1271.

Connell, P.H. (1959) Amphetamine Psychosis. Maudlsey Monograph Number 5, Institute of Psychiatry, London: Oxford University Press.

Der, G., Gupta, S. and Murray, R.M. (1990) Is schizophrenia disappearing? Lancet, 1, 513-516.

Dixon, L., Haas, G., Wedien, P.J., Sweeney, J. and Frances, A.J. (1990) Acute effects of drug abuse in schizophrenic patients: clinical observations and patients' self-reports. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 69-79.

Dixon, L., Haas, G., Wedien, P.J., Sweeney, J. and Frances, A.J. (1991) Drug abuse in schizophrenic patients: clinical correlates and reasons for use. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 224-230.

Drummond, L. (1986) Cannabis psychosis: a case report. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 139-140.

Edwards, G. (1976) Cannabis and the psychiatric position. In J.D.P. Graham (ed) Cannabis and Health. London: Academic Press.

Edwards, G.(1983) Psychopathology of a drug experience. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 509-512.

Feinstein, A.R. (1985) Clinical Epidemiology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Top of page

Gawin, F.H. and Ellinwood, E.H. (1988) Cocaine and other stimulants: Actions, abuse and treatment. New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 1173-1182.

Georgotas, A. and Zeidenberg, P. (1979) Observations on the effects of four weeks of heavy marijuana smoking on group interaction and individual behavior. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 20, 427-432.

Ghodse, A.H.(1986) Cannabis psychosis. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 473-478.

Goldberg, L. (1968a) Drug abuse in Sweden. Part I. Bulletin On Narcotics, 20, (1) 1-31. (a)

Goldberg, L. (1968b) Drug abuse in Sweden. Part II. Bulletin On Narcotics, 20, (2) 9-36. (b)

Grinspoon, L. and Hedblom, P. (1975) The Speed Culture: Amphetamine Abuse in America. Cambridge, Massachussets: Harvard University Press.

Halikas, J.A., Goodwin, D.W. and Guze, S.B. (1971) Marihuana effects: a survey of reguabis administered during pregnancy: First Association, 217, 692-694.

Hendin, H., Haas, A.P., Singer, P., Eller, M. and Ulman, R. (1987) Living High: Daily Marijuana Use Among Adults. New York: Human Sciences Press.

Imade, A.G.T. and Ebie, J (1991) A retrospective study of symptom patterns of cannabis-induced psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 83, 134-136.

Inghe, G. (1969) The present state of abuse and addiction to stimulant drugs in Sweden. (pp 187-214) In F. Sjoqvist and M. Tottie (eds) Abuse of Central Stimulants. New York: Raven Press.

Johnson, B.A., Smith, B.L. and Taylor, P. (1988) Cannabis and schizophrenia. Lancet, 1, 592-593.

Johnson, V. (1988) A longitudinal assessment of predominant patterns of drug use among adolescents and young adults. In G. Chesher, P. Consroe, and R. Musty (eds) Marijuana: An International Research Report. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Jones, R.T. (1984) Marijuana: Health and treatment issues. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7, 703-712.

Top of page

Kandel, D. and Faust, R. (1975) Sequence and stages in patterns of adolescent drug use. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 923-932.

Kolansky, H. and Moore, W.T. (1971) Effects of marihuana on adolescents and young adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 216, 486-492.

Knudsen, P. and Vilmar, T. (1984) Cannabis and neuroleptic agents in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 69, 162-174.

Mathers, D.C., Ghodse, A.H., Caan, A.W., and Scott, S.A. (1991) Cannabis use in a large sample of acute psychiatric admissions. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 779-784.

McGlothin, W.H. and West, L.J. (1968) The marijuana problem: An overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 370-378.

Mendelson, J.H., Rossi, M.A., Meyer, R.E. (Eds). (1974). The Use of Marihuana: A psychological and physiological inquiry. New York: Plenum Press.

Millman, R.B. and Sbriglio, R. (1986) Patterns of use and psychopathology in chronic marijuana users. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9, 533-545.

Mueser, K.T., Yarnold, P.R., Levinson, D.F., Singh, H. Bellack, A.S., Kee, K., Morrison, R.L. and Yadalam, K.G. (1990) Prevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia: demographic and clinical correlates. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 31-56.

National Academy of Science, Institute of Medicine. (1982) Marijuana and Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Negrete, J (1983) Psychiatric aspects of cannabis use. In K.O. Fehr and H. Kalant (eds) Cannabis and Health Hazards. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Negrete, J (1988) What's happened to the cannabis debate? British Journal of Addiction, 83, 359-372.

Negrete, J (1989) Cannabis and schizophrenia. British Journal of Addiction, 84, 349-351.

Negrete, J.C., Knapp, W.P., Douglas, D. and Smith, W.B. (1986) Cannabis affects the severity of schizophrenic symptoms: results of a clinical survey. Psychological Medicine, 16, 515-520.

Top of page

Onyango, R.S. (1986) Cannabis psychosis in young psychiatric inpatients. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 419-423.

Perkins, K.A., Simpson, J and Tsuang, M.T. (1986) Ten-year follow-up of drug abusers with acute or chronic psychosis. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 37, 481-484.

Rolfe, M., Tang, C.M., Sabally, S., Todd, J.E., Sam, E.B. and Hatib N'Jie, A.B. (1993) Psychosis and cannabis abuse in Gambia: A case-control study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1993, 163, 798-801.

Rottanburg, D., Robins, A.H., Ben-Arie, O., Teggin, A. and Elk, R. (1982) Cannabis-associated psychosis with hypomanic features. Lancet, 2, 1364-1366.

Schneier, F.R. and Siris, S.G. (1987) A review of psychoactive substance use and abuse in schizophrenia: patterns of drug choice. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 175, 641-652.

Smith, D.E. (1968) Acute and chronic toxicity of marijuana. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 2, 37-47.

Stefanis, C., Boulougouris, J. and Liakos, A. (1976) Clinical and psychophysiological effects of cannabis in long-term users. In M Braude and S. Szara (eds) The Pharmacology of Marihuana. New York: Raven Press.

Tennant, F.S. and Groesbeck, C.J. (1972) Psychiatric effects of hashish. Archives of General Psychiatry, 27, 133-136.

Thacore, V.R. and Shukla, S.R.P. (1976) Cannabis psychosis and paranoid schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 383-386.

Thomas, H. (1993) Psychiatric symptoms in cannabis users. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 141-149.

Thornicroft, G. (1990) Cannabis and psychosis: Is there epidemiological evidence for association. British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 25-33.

Tsuang, M.T., Simpson, J and Kronfol, Z. (1982) Subtypes of drug abuse with psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 141-147.

Tunving, K. (1985) Psychiatric effects of cannabis use. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 73, 209-217.

Turner, W.M. and Tsuang, M.T. (1990) Impact of substance abuse on the course and outcome of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 87-372.

Weil, A. (1970) Adverse reactions to marihuana. New England Journal of Medicine, 282, 997-1000.

Weller, M.P.I., Ang, P.C., Latimer-Sayer, D.T. and Zachary, A. (1988) Drug abuse and mental illness. Lancet, 1, 977.