Publications

A listing of publications, sorted by A-Z and topics, on the Australian Government Department of Health websites.

Page last updated: 21 February 2018 (this page is generated automatically and reflects updates to other content within the website)

By Title

View publications by title beginning with...

By Health Topic

View publications by health topic


Alternatively view all 600 publications or the most recently added publications on this website.

Currently displaying the 10 most recently added publications:

PublicationYearStatusHealth topics

National position statement for the management of latent tuberculosis infection

The primary role of any tuberculosis (TB) control program is to ensure the prompt identification and effective treatment of active disease. The host immune system often succeeds in containing the initial (or primary) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but may fail to eliminate the pathogen. The persistence of viable organisms explains the potential for the development of active disease years or even decades after infection. This is known as latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) although, rather than a distinct entity, this probably represents part of a dynamic spectrum. Individuals with LTBI are asymptomatic and it is therefore clinically undetectable. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that one-third of the global population has been infected with Mtb, with highest prevalence of LTBI in countries/regions with the highest prevalence of active disease. In 2013, 88% of 1322 notifications in Australia were in the overseas-born population (incidence 19.5 per 100,000 v. 1.0 per 100,000), with this proportion rising over the course of the last decade. Combined with epidemiological evidence of low local transmission, this strongly implies that the vast majority resulted from reactivation of latent infection acquired prior to immigration. Contrasting trends in TB incidence in other developed countries probably reflect differences in policy regarding LTBI. Conclusion: The diagnosis and treatment of LTBI represents an important opportunity for intervention by jurisdictional TB control programs.

2017Current

The epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Australia Capital Territory, 2006-2015

This paper reviews surveillance data to describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Australian Capital Territory over a 10 year period between 2006 and 2015.

2017Current

Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme, 1 April to 30 June 2017

The reference laboratories of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme (AMSP) report data on the number of cases of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) confirmed by laboratory testing using culture and by non-culture based techniques. Data contained in quar­terly reports are restricted to a description of the number of cases of IMD by jurisdiction and serogroup, where known. A full analysis of laboratory confirmed cases of IMD in each calen­dar year is contained in the AMSP annual reports.

2017Current

Annual report: surveillance of adverse events following immunisation in Australia, 2015

This report summarises Australian passive surveillance data for adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) reported to the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) for 2015. It also describes reporting trends over the 16-year period 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2015.

2017Current

Tuberculosis screening in an aged care residential facility in a low-incidence setting

This is a retrospective cohort study of tuberculosis contact tracing and screening in an elderly residential facility in Victoria. In the absence of specific guidelines regarding an optimal test for this population, 18 residents were tested with both tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), and all underwent symptom assessment and chest x-ray (CXR).

2017Current

Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) annual report 2015: Prospective hospital-based surveillance for serious paediatric conditions

This is the second of planned annual reports to Communicable Diseases Intelligence for Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS), a hospital-based active surveillance system for select serious paediatric conditions of public health importance. PAEDS has a focus on monitoring vaccine preventable diseases and adverse events following immunisation and in 2015 included surveillance for: acute flaccid paralysis; encephalitis; influenza; intussusception; pertussis; and varicella and zoster.

2017Current

2016 Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit Surveillance Report

The Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) was established in to facilitate national active surveillance of uncommon rare childhood diseases, complications of common diseases or adverse effects of treatment. Currently APSU undertakes surveillance for rare infectious diseases or rare complications of more common infectious diseases including: acute flaccid paralysis (AFP, a surrogate condition for polio virus infection), congenital rubella, congenital cytomegalovirus, congenital or neonatal varicella, neonatal and infant herpes simplex virus, perinatal exposure to HIV and paediatric HIV infection, and juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis which is due to the human papilloma virus infection. Surveillance for severe complications of influenza began in 2008. Surveillance for microcephaly began in 2016 to identify potential case of congenital Zika virus infection. APSU data supports clinical and public health policy and surveillance for AFP contributes to Polio-Free certification by the WHO.

2017Current

National Tuberculosis Advisory Committee Guideline: Management of Tuberculosis Risk in Healthcare Workers in Australia

Tuberculosis (TB) is uncommon in Australia and not commonly managed by most healthcare workers (HCWs). However, even in a low incidence setting, occasional exposure of HCWs is inevitable and transmission of TB to HCWs leading to disease does occur. In addition, HCWs may have been recruited to Australia from countries with high TB incidence. These HCWs are more likely to be infected with TB before arrival and subsequently develop active disease while working in health settings in Australia. In 2001, there were 20 TB notifications in HCWs in Australia, of which 10 were born overseas, whereas in 2013, 70 of 77 notified cases (91%) were people born overseas.1, 2 Managing the risk of TB in HCWs is multifaceted. A combination of staff education, awareness, early diagnosis, appropriate use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental controls and screening procedures is required to minimise the risk of transmission to HCWs and from HCWs to patients. Prevention of nosocomial transmission from HCWs is particularly important in patients that are more vulnerable, for example children and the immunocompromised. This document aims to describe the components that are considered essential for all healthcare facilities in Australia to minimise this risk. It is not intended to be operational, and reference should be made to specific state and territory TB Control Program policies for this detail. Each facility should develop its own policy for the management of TB risk in HCWs according to this jurisdictional policy and the facility specific factors that determine risk, but it should include at least the following components.

2017Current

Sexually Transmitted Infections in Melbourne, Australia from 1918 to 2016: nearly a century of data

This paper describes the diagnoses of gonorrhoea, syphilis and chancroid attending a single sexual health service in Melbourne and fills a 40-year gap (1929-1969) in STI notifications for Australia.

2017Current

Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2014

In 2014, the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,339 tuberculosis (TB) notifications, representing a rate of 5.7 per 100,000 population. Australia has achieved and maintained good tuber¬culosis (TB) control since the mid-1980s, sustaining a low annual TB incidence rate of approximately 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 population. The number of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases diagnosed in Australia is low by international standards, with approximately 1-2% of notifications per year being classified as MDR-TB. Australia’s overseas-born pop¬ulation continued to represent the majority (86%) of TB notifications and Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population continue to record TB rates around 6 times higher than the Australian born non Indigenous population. Whilst Australia has achieved excellent and sustained control of TB in Australia, sustained effort is still required to reduce rates further and contribute to the achievement of the World Health Organization’s goal to end the global TB epidemic by 2035.

2017Current