Online version of the 2013-14 Department of Health Annual Report

Outcome 10: Health System Capacity and Quality

Improved long-term capacity, quality and safety of Australia’s health care system to meet future health needs, including through investment in health infrastructure, international engagement, consistent performance reporting and research

Page last updated: 31 October 2014

Major Achievements

  • Over 80,000 calls received by the National Breastfeeding Helpline.
  • On the world stage, the Department took prominent roles as Chair of both the Executive Board of the World Health Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Committee to engage with other countries in an effort to improve health outcomes globally.
  • Worked with the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care to strengthen safety and quality arrangements health system wide by pursuing clinical blood management and improving antimicrobial resistance surveillance.
  • The National Prescribing Service (NPS MedicineWise) conducted education programmes in which over 20,000 health professionals participated on topics including the use of anticoagulants, preventative activities in general practice, type 2 diabetes and the use of medicines in older people. Close to one million consumers actively engaged with NPS MedicineWise activities and resources in 2013-14, including online and social media interactions.

Challenges

  • The NPS MedicineWise faces a challenge in promoting awareness of appropriate prescribing of antibiotics in order to address the issue of antimicrobial resistance through overuse of these medicines as a result of community expectations in the prescribing of antibiotics for common viral conditions.

Looking Ahead

From 1 January 2015, the Department will oversee the disbursement strategy for the Government’s new Medical Research Future Fund. The Department will work with stakeholders to consider the recommendations of the review of the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record. Further, through the Health Surveillance Fund (HSF), the Department will continue the long term collection of statistical data on chronic and communicable diseases, drug usage and injuries.

Programmes Contributing to Outcome 10

  • Programme 10.1: Chronic disease – treatment
  • Programme 10.2: eHealth implementation
  • Programme 10.3: Health information
  • Programme 10.4: International policy engagement
  • Programme 10.5: Research capacity and quality
  • Programme 10.6: Health infrastructure

Divisions contributing to Outcome 10

In 2013-14, Outcome 10 was the responsibility of Acute Care Division, eHealth Policy, Change and Adoption Division, the Office of Health Protection, Pharmaceutical Benefits Division, Population Health Division and Portfolio Strategies Division.

Outcome Strategy

Outcome 10 aims to improve the long-term capacity of Australia’s health care system with a particular emphasis on quality and safety. In 2013-14, the Department worked to achieve this Outcome by managing initiatives under the programmes outlined below.

Programme 10.1: Chronic disease – treatment

Programme 10.1 aims to improve detection, treatment and survival outcomes for people with cancer.

Improving detection, treatment and survival outcomes for people with cancer

Breast Cancer

The Department funds the McGrath Foundation to employ specially trained, registered breast care nurses to provide information, care, and practical and emotional support to women diagnosed with breast cancer, their families and carers.

Quantitative Deliverable
Number of breast care nurses employed through the McGrath Foundation
2013-14 Target
53
2013-14 Actual
53
Result
Met
The number of breast care nurses employed through the McGrath Foundation: 2010-11 30 nurses, 2011-12 30 nurses, 2012-13 44 nurses.Through the McGrath Foundation 53 breast care nurses were employed in 2013-14. These nurses are located in predominantly rural and remote communities around Australia.

In 2013-14, the Department continued to fund the replacement of outdated analogue technology with new digital mammography at BreastScreen sites across Australia. Upgrading to digital technology aids the fight against breast cancer by ensuring more Australian women are screened with digital machines with higher resolutions. This integrated approach also includes the installation and commissioning of systems for the electronic transfer of mammography images from remote locations to major cities for analysis.

Qualitative Deliverable
Improve the early detection of breast cancer through the installation of new digital technology
2013-14 Reference Point
Continue upgrade from analogue to digital mammography
Result
Not Met
To date, a total of 124 mammography machines have been upgraded to digital technology across fixed sites and mobile units. There were a number of delays around the installation of new digital technology due to issues with contractors supplying equipment. This project will see the remaining digital mammography upgrades completed by 30 June 2016.
Cancer Centres

The Department has continued to monitor the construction of 24 regional cancer centres funded under the Health and Hospitals Fund (HHF). This national network is dramatically improving access to treatment and support services for cancer patients, their carers and families in rural and regional Australia. Of these 24 projects, 14 projects are finalised and 10 are under construction.

In 2013-14, the Chris O’Brien Lifehouse at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in Sydney began treating patients and the Department continued to actively monitor the construction of the Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre.

Qualitative KPI
Effective monitoring of HHF cancer projects for compliance with agreed outputs
2013-14 Reference Point
Progress reports are received for all projects in the required timeframe and remedial action taken as required
Result
Met
Progress reports received by the Department indicate that the majority of funding recipients were compliant and achieved the agreed project outputs. Where projects were found to be noncompliant, the Department undertook remedial action in a timely manner.
Quantitative KPI
Percentage of progress reports for cancer infrastructure projects (including regional cancer centres) that meet agreed requirements
2013-14 Target
100%
2013-14 Actual
100%
Result
Met
The percentage of progress reports for cancer infrastructure projects (including regional cancer centres) that meet agreed requirements: 2011-12 100 per cent, 2012-13 100 per cent.All progress reports submitted for cancer infrastructure projects met the agreed requirements.

Programme 10.2: eHealth implementation

Programme 10.2 aims to provide national eHealth leadership and develop systems to provide eHealth services.

Provide national eHealth leadership

During 2013-14, the Australian Government continued to support the national roll out of eHealth technology and services, and worked with States and Territories to support national eHealth foundations. This included the maintenance of national eHealth infrastructure and standards necessary for clinically safe, secure and interoperable eHealth for adoption by public and private health care providers. The adoption of eHealth will support improved productivity across the health sector and greater convenience for providers and patients.

In November 2013, the Government commissioned an external review of the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PCEHR) to examine issues with the existing PCEHR system. In 2014-15, the Government will continue to work with stakeholders on the review recommendations to maximise the benefits of eHealth for the Australian community.

Qualitative Deliverable
Fund the NEHTA to support the connectivity and interoperability of the eHealth system
2013-14 Reference Point
Contract and funding agreements between the NEHTA and the Commonwealth executed. Deliverables outlined in the schedule/s and a process for performance reviews in place
Result
Met
Funding agreements executed by mid-2013 included agreed sets of deliverables linked to the National E-Health Transition Authority (NEHTA) work programmes and overseen by the NEHTA Board.
The Department reviewed all deliverables in accordance with the schedules of the funding agreements.
Qualitative Deliverable
Promote uptake of the PCEHR system through targeted awareness and training with key stakeholders representing both consumers and health care providers
2013-14 Reference Point
Deliver consistent messaging about the PCEHR system and its benefits through key stakeholders’ organisations, including the Australian Medicare Local Alliance, Medicare Locals, the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners and the Consumers Health Forum
Result
Met

Operate a national eHealth system

The PCEHR is a key element in providing a seamless, fully integrated health record that can be accessed wherever health care is sought.

Qualitative Deliverable
The Department, as the PCEHR system operator, applies good practice principles and methods for the operation and support of the PCEHR system
2013-14 Reference Point
The PCEHR system operations and practices are regularly reviewed by a specific governance committee
Result
Met
Quantitative KPI
Number of consumers who register for a PCEHR
2013-14 Target
1,500,000
2013-14 Actual
1,725,934
Result
Met

Provide eHealth services

In 2013-14, the Department continued delivery of the Telehealth Pilots Programme, funding nine pilot projects. These projects deliver telehealth health care services to people in their homes and community hubs. The programme focuses on aged care, cancer care and palliative care. In delivering the programme, the Department manages individual funding agreements for each of the nine projects.

Qualitative Deliverable
Telehealth services are trialled in the home for aged care, palliative care and cancer care
2013-14 Reference Point
The Department will evaluate the pilot programme on the use of telehealth services in the home using NBN infrastructure
Result
Not Met
The Telehealth Pilots Programme, trialling telehealth services to the home, was extended to 31 December 2014 to mitigate the impact of delays to the NBN roll out. A programme evaluation, which will draw on the individual project evaluations, will be conducted in the last quarter of 2014.
Quantitative Deliverable
Number of telehealth services provided under the NBN Enabled Telehealth Pilots Programme51
2013-14 Target
400
2013-14 Actual
2,487
Result
Met
The number of telehealth services provided under the National Broadband Network Enabled Telehealth Pilots Programme: 2012-13 59 telehealth services.Delivery of telehealth services was initially limited by delays to the NBN roll out. In November 2013, the programme requirements were amended to allow the use of fit for purpose broadband connections which assisted projects to meet their targets. The target for the number of services was subsequently exceeded, with 2,487 services provided in 2013-14, compared with 59 services in 2012-13.

Programme 10.3: Health information

Programme 10.3 aims to provide support to the Australian Health Minister’s Advisory Council and support maternity services reform.

Provide support to the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council

The Commonwealth and State and Territory Ministers on the COAG Health Council (CHC) (formerly known as the Standing Council on Health), work in partnership to improve health outcomes for all Australians and ensure the sustainability of the Australian health system. The Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council (AHMAC) provides support to the CHC by advising it on strategic issues relating to the coordination of health services across the nation and, as applicable, with New Zealand. The AHMAC also operates as a national forum for planning, information sharing and innovation on health and hospital issues.

Qualitative Deliverable
Australian Government initiated activities undertaken by AHMAC and its Principal Committees support the SCoH in providing leadership on national health issues
2013-14 Reference Point
Australian Government priorities are highlighted in the development of the SCoH annual work plan
Result
Met
During 2013-14, Australian Government priorities were progressed with State and Territory Governments through the AHMAC and CHC work programmes. This included work on issues such as: hospital and health services including integration of primary care networks; coordination of care for people with chronic and complex conditions; eHealth, health workforce; mental health; safety and quality; and health promotion and prevention.

Support maternity services reform

The National Maternity Services Plan (the Plan) recognises the importance of maternity services within the health system and provides a strategic national framework, as endorsed by State, Territory and Commonwealth Governments, for the five year period 2010-2015.

During 2013-14, the Department continued to progress activities under the Plan to address the four key priorities: access, service delivery, workforce and infrastructure. Examples include:

  • continued work on the National Evidence-Based Antenatal Care Guidelines for the second and third trimester (Model II); and
  • working with the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare on Stage 2 of the National Maternity Data Development Project (NMDDP) which supports the development of a nationally consistent maternal and perinatal data collection in Australia over two years (2013-2015).

The Department through the Maternity Services Inter-Jurisdictional Committee has also continued working with the State and Territory Governments to implement actions under the Plan.

Qualitative Deliverable
Develop nationally consistent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity data collections
2013-14 Reference Point
Data collection meets the needs of researchers and policy makers as identified in Improving Maternity Services in Australia – Report on Maternity Services Review
Result
Substantially met
Data development work is progressing well with priorities agreed. The first batch of items was approved as national standards in early 2014 and the Foundations for enhanced maternity data collection and reporting in Australia – NMDDP Stage 1 was released on 21 May 2014.
Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding helps protect infants against a number of conditions, including diarrhoea, respiratory and ear infections, as well as obesity and chronic disease later in life. Breastfeeding also benefits a mother’s own health by reducing risks of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis.

To support women who are breastfeeding, the Department continues to fund the Australian Breastfeeding Association to run the National Breastfeeding Helpline. The helpline, 1800 mum 2 mum,52 is staffed by Australian Breastfeeding Association volunteers across Australia and provides free, confidential breastfeeding advice and support, 24 hours a day.

Quantitative KPI
Number of people to contact the National Breastfeeding Helpline
2013-14 Target
75,000
2013-14 Actual
87,296
Result
MetThe number of people to contact the National Breastfeeding Helpline: 2010-11 84,051 people, 2011-12 84,769 people, 2012-13 84,256 people.

Programme 10.4: International policy engagement

Programme 10.4 aims to facilitate international engagement on global health issues.

Facilitate international engagement on global health issues

The Department engages in multilateral and regional international health fora, and bilaterally with other countries and global health bodies, to help protect and advance the health of Australians. The Department’s efforts also help fulfil Australia’s responsibility, as an advanced economy, to help improve global and regional health outcomes.

Qualitative Deliverable
Australia’s interests secured at relevant meetings of key international health bodies and organisations
2013-14 Reference Point
Departmental representatives will have actively engaged in WHO governing body meetings, OECD Health Committee meetings, APEC Health Working Group meetings and other international meetings held throughout the year
Result
Met
Quantitative KPI
Number of international health delegations visits facilitated by the Department
2013-14 Target
20-25
2013-14 Actual
20
Result
Met
Quantitative KPI
Number of cooperative agreements with overseas health ministries53
2013-14 Target
5-7
2013-14 Actual
4
Result
Substantially met
The number of cooperative agreements with overseas health ministries: 2010-11 six cooperative agreements, 2011-12 four cooperative agreements, 2012-13 four cooperative agreements. As at 30 June 2014, health-specific cooperative agreements are in place with China, Indonesia, Japan and Iraq. Health is also identified as an area for technical cooperation in whole-of-government agreements, for example with Mexico and the European Union. Additionally, the Department has supported the development and implementation of Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs) for sports cooperation with Spain and Singapore.

Programme 10.5: Research capacity and quality

Programme 10.5 aims to improve research capacity and improve safety and quality in health care.

Improve research capacity

Health and Medical Research

The McKeon Review - Strategic Review of Health and Medical Research – Better Health through Research was released in 2013. The Review focused on optimising Australia’s capacity to produce world class health and medical research.

Qualitative Deliverable
Response to the Strategic Review of Health and Medical Research in Australia (McKeon Review)
2013-14 Reference Point
The Department will contribute to the Government’s response to the McKeon Review
Result
Met

The Minister for Health announced the establishment of the new Medical Research Future Fund (MRFF) in the 2014-15 Budget. The MRFF will address medical research priorities by funding vital research that may lead to the discovery of new medicines and technologies to improve prevention, treatments and cure.

Health and Hospitals Fund (HHF)

Of the 12 medical research infrastructure projects that began in 2009-10 under the HHF, eight are complete, with the remainder to be finalised by the end of 2015. The centres cover areas such as mental health, neurological disorders, child health and Indigenous health. The projects aim to improve community health through discovering new treatments and translating new research findings into improved treatment.

Qualitative KPI
Effective monitoring of HHF health and medical research projects for compliance with agreed outputs
2013-14 Reference Point
Progress reports are received for all projects in the required timeframe and remedial action taken as required
Result
Met

Maintain effective health surveillance

To develop effective health policy and programmes, researchers and policy makers must have access to current information. The Department, through the Health Surveillance Fund (HSF), funded several disease surveillance programmes in 2013-14. Through the production of high quality and timely data, these programmes contributed to the development of evidence-based policy and programmes.

Qualitative Deliverable
Produce relevant and timely evidence-based surveillance data, information and research
2013-14 Reference Point
Surveillance information available to inform national strategies supported by the Health Surveillance Fund
Result
Met
In 2013-14, the HSF provided funding to the Blood Borne Viruses and Sexually Transmissible Infections Research Centres, the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease Registry, the Australian National Diabetes Audit, the Australian Community Food Safety Campaign, the Social Health Atlas, and Human Papillomavirus Surveillance. In addition, the HSF provided funding for the Vaccine Preventable Diseases Surveillance Programme which enabled national monitoring, analysis and timely reporting of data to inform communicable disease and immunisation policy, including disease prevention and outbreak management policies.

Monitor the use of diagnostics, therapeutics and pathology

Through the Quality Use of Diagnostics, Therapeutics and Pathology Fund, the Australian Government supports the National Prescribing Service (NPS MedicineWise) to provide information to consumers and health professionals on quality use of medicines and medical testing. This improves health outcomes and aims to ensure the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) are sustainable into the future.

During 2013-14, NPS MedicineWise continued its programme of health professional and consumer education activities focused on asthma, optimising the use of anticoagulant therapies and medicines safety in older people. The smartphone app ‘Medicine List +’ was also launched. Consumers can use this app to store information on the medicines they are using, set timing and dosing reminders and record other important health information such as test results. NPS MedicineWise also undertook a range of projects to encourage the optimal use of pathology and diagnostic imaging referrals for patients with back pain and suspected vitamin D deficiency.

NPS MedicineWise sponsored the Annual Antibiotic Awareness Week, continuing their five year campaign to combat antimicrobial resistance in Australia, and hosted the 8th Biennial National Medicines Symposium ‘Medicines in Health: shaping our future’ with a particular focus on ethical decision making and the use of data to improve health outcomes for Australians. The continued development of MedicineInsight to improve post-market surveillance by capturing, storing and analysing data from GPs to inform how medicines are being used in clinical practice is also enabling NPS MedicineWise to identify areas for improved prescribing and ultimately improving patient health outcomes.

Qualitative Deliverable
Information regarding quality use of medicines newly listed on the PBS is provided to health professionals where appropriate
2013-14 Reference Point
The Department will produce information in a variety of formats throughout the year, including the Rational Assessment of Drugs and Research, the Australian Prescriber and an annual evaluation report
Result
Met
The Department funded NPS MedicineWise to produce all scheduled publications, including the Rational Assessment of Drugs and Research (RADAR) and the Australian Prescriber.
Quantitative KPI
Number of general practitioners participating in education initiatives
2013-14 Target
14,000
2013-14 Actual
13,129
Result
Substantially met
The number of general practitioners participating in education initiatives: 2011-12 13,000 general practitioners, 2012-13 14,112 general practitioners.In 2013-14 the NPS reported that 13,129 general practitioners participated in quality use of medicines education activities provided by the NPS. This compares to 14,112 in 2012-13.
This reduction reflects a realignment of programmes to ensure coordination of messages about therapeutic topics for general practitioners with other guidelines released during the year.

The National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines (NatRUM) programme was established to reduce accidental childhood poisoning, medication misuse and harmful effects on the environment by giving consumers the opportunity to return unwanted or expired medicines to any pharmacy for free for destruction in an environmentally friendly manner.

The volume of unwanted medicines collected under the NatRUM programme has increased steadily since it commenced in 1998. In 2000-01, the collection totalled 235,267 kilos and in 2013-14 the collection was over 700,000 kilos compared with more than 600,000 kilograms in 2012-13. A review was undertaken in 2013-14 which confirmed the value and outcomes of this programme.

Improve safety and quality in health care

The Department continues to work with the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (the Commission) to embed safety and quality into the Australian health system, improving patient care outcomes, and enhancing health service accountability. Activities undertaken in 2013-14 include: implementation of national accreditation schemes; formulation of national clinical care standards; and a nationally agreed consensus statement about consumer health literacy.

The Department engaged the Commission to commence four activities announced in the 2013-14 Budget including: developing an Australian Atlas of clinical variation; coordinating a patient blood Management Collaborative Programme; implementing a national antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic usage surveillance system; and developing a radiation safety programme. These activities are at various stages of implementation and are reported in detail in the Commission’s annual report.

Programme 10.6: Health infrastructure

Programme 10.6 aims to invest in major health infrastructure.

Invest in major health infrastructure

The Health and Hospitals Fund (HHF) has funded new acute, primary care and research facilities and funded extensions and improvements to existing facilities. It has also funded new medical technology and equipment. During 2013-14, the Department worked with funding recipients to progress their projects. While infrastructure projects often take several years to complete, around 40 per cent of all HHF projects are now finalised.

Qualitative Deliverable
Funding arrangements in place for all successful projects under the 2010 and 2011 Regional Priority Round of HHF grants
2013-14 Reference Point
Remaining funding agreements signed by 30 June 2014
Result
Substantially met
Under the 2010 and 2011 HHF Regional Priority Rounds, 139 successful projects were announced. Funding agreements are in place for 116 projects (nearly 85%, which is a combination of the figures for 2010 and 2011), noting that four of these projects have been terminated at the funding recipients’ request. The Department will continue to work with Government and non-government organisations to ensure the remaining 23 funding arrangements will be finalised by mid 2014-15.
Qualitative Deliverable
Undertake grant funding and procurement processes as required to meet the objectives of the Health System Capacity Development Fund
2013-14 Reference Point
Negotiation and execution of appropriate funding contracts and funding agreements to be completed by June 2014, to enable funding to commence from 2014-15
Result
Substantially met
Most funding agreements and contracts for new and ongoing work to commence in 2014-15 were in place by June 2014.
Qualitative KPI
Effective monitoring of HHF projects for compliance with agreed outputs
2013-14 Reference Point
Reports are received for all projects in the required timeframe and remedial action taken as required
Result
Met
The majority of funding receipts were compliant and achieved the agreed project outputs. Where projects were found to be noncompliant, the Department undertook remedial action in a timely manner.

Outcome 10 – Financial Resource Summary

(A) Budget Estimate 1
2013-14
$’000
(B) Actual 2013-14
$’000
Variation (Column B minus Column A)
$’000
Programme 10.1: Chronic Disease – Treatment 2
Administered Expenses
Ordinary Annual Services (Annual Appropriation Bill 1)
20,610
20,632
22
Special Accounts
Health and Hospital Fund Health Portfolio Special Account
147,464
138,316
( 9,148)
Departmental Outputs
Departmental Appropriation 3
3,253
3,176
( 77)
Expenses not requiring appropriation in the current year 4
163
154
( 8)
Total for Programme 10.1
171,490
162,278
( 9,211)
Programme 10.2: e-Health Implementation
Administered Expenses
Ordinary Annual Services (Annual Appropriation Bill 1)
112,115
100,266
( 11,849)
Non cash expenses 5
18,309
18,309
Departmental Expenses
Departmental Appropriation 3
18,776
18,817
41
Expenses not requiring appropriation in the current year 4
945
856
( 89)
Total for Programme 10.2
150,145
138,248
( 11,896)
Programme 10.3: Health Information
Administered Expenses
Ordinary Annual Services (Annual Appropriation Bill 1)
29,042
27,772
( 1,270)
Departmental Expenses
Departmental Appropriation 3
1,742
1,793
51
Expenses not requiring appropriation in the current year 4
86
88
2
Total for Programme 10.3
30,870
29,653
( 1,217)
Programme 10.4: International Policy Engagement
Administered Expenses
Ordinary Annual Services (Annual Appropriation Bill 1)
12,575
11,568
( 1,007)
Departmental Expenses
Departmental Appropriation 3
12
13
1
Expenses not requiring appropriation in the current year 4
1
1
-
Total for Programme 10.4
12,588
11,582
( 1,006)
Programme 10.5: Research Capacity and Quality 2
Administered Expenses
Ordinary Annual Services (Annual Appropriation Bill 1)
83,027
81,591
( 1,436)
Special Accounts
Health and Hospital Fund Health Portfolio Special Account
30,109
30,081
( 28)
Departmental Expenses
Departmental Appropriation 3
10,515
11,598
1,083
Expenses not requiring appropriation in the current year 4
358
396
38
Total for Programme 10.5
124,009
123,666
( 343)
Programme 10.6: Health Infrastructure 2
Administered Expenses
Ordinary Annual Services (Annual Appropriation Bill 1)
Special Accounts
Health and Hospital Fund Health Portfolio Special Account
422,228
456,618
34,390
Departmental Expenses
Departmental Appropriation 3
10,237
8,649
( 1,588)
Expenses not requiring appropriation in the current year 4
508
418
( 90)
Total for Programme 10.6
432,973
465,685
32,712
Outcome 10 Totals by appropriation type
Administered Expenses
Ordinary Annual Services (Annual Appropriation Bill 1)
257,369
241,829
( 15,540)
Non cash expenses 5
18,309
18,309
Special Accounts
599,801
625,015
25,214
Departmental Expenses
Departmental Appropriation 3
44,535
44,046
( 489)
Expenses not requiring appropriation in the current year 4
2,061
1,913
( 148)
Total Expenses for Outcome 10
922,075
931,112
9,037
Average Staffing Level (Number)
249
239
( 10)

1Budgeted appropriations taken from the 2014-15 Health Portfolio Budget Statements and re-aligned to the 2013-14 programme group structure.

2 This programme includes National Partnerships paid to State and Territory Governments by the Treasury as part of the Federal Financial Relations (FFR) Framework. National Partnerships are listed in this chapter under each programme.

3 Departmental appropriation combines ‘Ordinary annual services (Appropriation Bill 1)’ and ‘Revenue from independent sources (s31)’.

4 ’Expenses not requiring appropriation in the budget year’ is made up of depreciation expense, amortisation, make good expense and audit fees. This estimate also includes approved operating losses – please refer to the departmental financial statements for further information. Some reclassifications have been made to the Budget estimates to more accurately reflect the allocation of departmental depreciation by outcome.

5 ‘Non cash expenses’ relates to the depreciation of computer software.